BIS published a working paper that uses a unique cross-country dataset at the loss event level to document the evolution and characteristics of the operational risk of banks. The paper highlights that better supervision is associated with lower operational losses. It also provides an estimate of losses due to cyber events, which constitute a subset of operational loss events. Cyber losses are a small fraction of total operational losses, but can account for a significant share of total operational value-at-risk.
Representing a significant portion of total bank risks, operational risks are second only to credit risks as a source of losses. Thus, measuring and understanding operational risks, including cyber risks, is critical for both banks and public authorities. The paper uses a unique cross-country dataset from ORX, which is a consortium of financial institutions. The sample contains over 700,000 operational loss events from 2002 until the end of 2017 for a group of 74 large banks with headquarters worldwide. The granularity of the dataset allowed the authors to study the evolution of operational risks through time, compute an operational and cyber value-at-risk for financial intermediaries, document the time lag between occurrence, discovery and recognition of losses, and investigate the link between operational losses, macroeconomic conditions, and regulatory characteristics.
The results of the study show that, after a spike following the Great Financial Crisis, operational losses have fallen in recent years. The spike was largely due to losses arising from improper business practices in large banks that were incurred in the run-up to the crisis but recognized only later. Operational value-at-risk can vary substantially across banks—from 6% to 12% of total gross income—depending on the method used. These numbers are consistent with the actual capital requirements, but notably smaller than the basic indicator approach. The results provide some support for the shift to the standardized approach in Basel III.
The analysis shows that it takes, on average, more than a year for operational losses to be discovered and recognized in the books. However, there is significant variation across regions and event types. For instance, improper business practices and internal fraud events take longer to be discovered. Operational losses are not independent of macroeconomic conditions and regulatory characteristics. The paper shows that credit booms and periods of excessively accommodative monetary policy are followed by larger operational losses. Furthermore, it is to be noted that a higher quality of financial regulation and supervision is also associated with lower cyber losses. Despite representing a relatively minor share of operational losses, cyber losses can account for up to a third of total operational value-at-risk.
Keywords: International, Banking, Operational Risk, Value-at-Risk, Cyber Risk, Standardized Approach, Research, BIS
Previous ArticleISDA Updates List of Derivative Instruments Subject to Margin Rules
The European Banking Authority (EBA) published four draft principles to support supervisory efforts in assessing the representativeness of COVID-19-impacted data for banks using the internal ratings based (IRB) credit risk models.
The European Council and the European Parliament (EP) reached a provisional political agreement on the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD).
The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) launched a consultation (CP6/22) that sets out proposal for a new Supervisory Statement on expectations for management of model risk by banks.
The European Commission (EC) published the Delegated Regulation 2022/954, which amends regulatory technical standards on specification of the calculation of specific and general credit risk adjustments.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) Innovation Hub updated its work program, announcing a set of projects across various centers.
The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) published two consultation papers—one on the supervisory statement on exclusions related to systemic events and the other on the supervisory statement on the management of non-affirmative cyber exposures.
Certain members of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs issued a letter to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) published a consultation paper on the advice on the review of the securitization prudential framework in Solvency II.
The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) issued a statement on PRA buffer adjustment while the Bank of England (BoE) published a notice on the statistical reporting requirements for banks.
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) issued principles for the effective management and supervision of climate-related financial risks.