October 2016

Pierre Xu, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody’s Analytics will discuss how required economic capital (EC) accounts for economic risks such as diversification and concentration effects.

During recent years, higher capital standards imposed by new stress testing requirements have forced organizations to address how to better manage capital to meet regulatory constraints. While maintaining higher capital levels is indeed mandatory, simply satisfying the requirement does not necessarily align with stakeholders’ preferences for optimal capital deployment and investment decisions.

Pierre Xu, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody’s Analytics discusses how required economic capital (EC) accounts for economic risks such as diversification and concentration effects.

Related Articles
Whitepaper

Earnings Volatility, Share Price Performance, and Credit Portfolio Management Under CECL and IFRS 9

This paper studies how earnings volatility induced by credit risk can impact share price performance for financial institutions under CECL and IFRS 9, and quantifies the benefit of an active credit risk management practice.

April 2019 WebPage Dr. Amnon Levy, Xuan Liang, Dr. Pierre Xu

Moody's Analytics Webinar: Credit Earnings Volatility and Share Price Performance: Implications of IFRS 9 and CECL

Join us as our experts, Amnon Levy, Managing Director, Pierre Xu, Director, and Anna Krayn, Senior Director, explore the relationship between share price performance and earnings volatility and the implications for credit portfolio management.

February 25, 2019 WebPage Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu, Anna Krayn
Webinar-on-Demand

Moody's Analytics Webinar: Credit Earnings Volatility and Share Price Performance: Implications of IFRS 9 and CECL

The new accounting standards can have material implications for allowance and earnings dynamics. Join our researchers, Amnon Levy and Pierre Xu, explore a large sample of banks to better understand channels by which the standards affect shareholder value.

February 2019 WebPage Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu, Anna Krayn
Whitepaper

A Composite Capital Measure Unifying Business Decision Rules in the Face of Regulatory Requirements Under New Accounting Standards

This paper introduces an approach that quantifies the additional capital buffer an institution requires, beyond the required regulatory minimum, to limit the likelihood of a capital breach.

May 2018 WebPage Dr. Amnon Levy, Xuan Liang, Dr. Pierre Xu
Whitepaper

A Composite Capital Measure Unifying Business Decision Rules in the Face of Regulatory Requirements Under New Accounting Standards

Prudent credit risk management ensures institutions maintain sufficient capital and limit the possibility of a capital breach. With CECL and IFRS 9, the resulting trend toward greater credit earnings volatility raises uncertainty in capital supply, ultimately causing an increase in required capital. It is ever more challenging for institutions to manage their top-of-the house capital while steering their business to achieve the desired performance level. This paper introduces an approach that quantifies the additional capital buffer an institution requires, beyond the required regulatory minimum, to limit the likelihood of a capital breach. In addition, we introduce a new measure that allocates capital and recognizes an instrument's regulatory capital requirements, loss allowance, economic concentration risks, and the instrument's contribution to the uncertainty in capital supply and demand. In-line with the Composite Capital Measure introduced in Levy and Xu (2017), this extended measure includes far-reaching implications for business decisions. Using a series of case studies, we demonstrate the limitations of alternative measures and how institutions can optimize performance by allocating capital and making business decisions according to the new measure.

May 2018 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Xuan Liang, Dr. Pierre Xu
Article

A Composite Capital Allocation Measure Integrating Regulatory and Economic Capital, and the Impact of IFRS 9 and CECL

We propose a composite capital allocation measure integrating regulatory and economic capital. The approach builds upon the economic framework underpinning traditional RORAC-style business decision rules, allowing for an optimized risk-return tradeoff while adhering to regulatory capital constraints. The measure has a number of depictions, and it can be viewed as a weighted sum of economic and regulatory capital, as economic capital adjusted for a regulatory capital charge, or as regulatory capital adjusted for concentration risk and diversification benefits. Intuitively, when represented as economic capital adjusted for a regulatory capital charge, the adjustment can be represented as the additional top-of-the-house regulatory capital, above economic capital, allocated by each instrument's required regulatory capital. We show that the measure has ideal properties for an integrated capital measure. When regulatory capital is binding, composite capital aggregates to the institution's top-of-the-house target capitalization rate. We find the measure is higher than economic capital, but lower than regulatory capital for instruments with high credit quality, reflecting the high regulatory capital charge for this instrument class. Finally, we address how IFRS 9/CECL impacts the CCM and discuss the broader implications of the new accounting standards.

May 2017 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu
Whitepaper

What Do 20 Million C&I Loan Observations Say about New Origination Dynamics? — Insights from Moody's Analytics CRD Data

We construct and examine new origination of C&I loans to middle-market borrowers using the Loan Accounting System data extracted from Moody's Analytics Credit Research Database (CRD/LAS). We find that C&I loan origination declines during the Great Recession and recovers soon after. The magnitude of the decline and the speed of the recovery varies across segments. For example, new lending to the financial industry decreases more than to the non-financial industry during the recession and recovers faster afterwards. Another example, new originations during the recession consists predominantly of short-term loans, while long-term lending becomes more dominant post crisis. This finding suggests that banks are using loan tenor as a means to mitigate risk during crises, at times even more so than credit quality.

February 2017 Pdf Dr. Pierre Xu, Tomer Yahalom, May Jeng
Whitepaper

Measuring and Managing Credit Earnings Volatility of a Loan Portfolio Under IFRS 9

IFRS 9 materially changes how institutions set aside loss allowance. With allowances flowing into earnings, the new rules can have dramatic effects on earnings volatility. In this paper, we propose general methodologies to measure and manage credit earnings volatility of a loan portfolio under IFRS 9. We walk through IFRS 9 rules and the different mechanisms that it interacts with which flow into earnings dynamics. We demonstrate that earnings will be impacted significantly by credit migration under IFRS 9. In addition, the increased sensitivity to migration will be further compounded by the impact of correlation and concentration. We propose a modeling framework that measures portfolio credit earnings volatility and discuss several metrics that can be used to better manage earnings risk.

January 2017 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Yanping Pan, Dr. Yashan Wang, Dr. Pierre Xu, Dr. Jing Zhang, Xuan Liang
Webinar-on-Demand

The Degree Regulatory Capital is Constraining and Impact on Investment Decision Rules

Pierre Xu, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody’s Analytics will discuss how required economic capital (EC) accounts for economic risks such as diversification and concentration effects.

October 2016 WebPage Dr. Pierre Xu
Whitepaper

Managing Earnings Volatility and Uncertainty in the Supply and Demand for Regulatory Capital: The Impact of IFRS 9

This paper presents a novel modeling approach that allows for better management of the interplay between supply and demand dynamics for regulatory capital, combining an economic framework with regulatory capital and new loss recognition rules. The framework is particularly relevant in understanding the extent to which IFRS 9 can lead to more aggressive provisioning, which feeds into earnings volatility. Our approach provides guidance on how organizations can better manage their capital buffer, considering investment concentration, its impact on earnings volatility, and the relationship with regulatory capital requirements. Imperative to portfolio management, the framework recognizes the likelihood of a capital shortfall being significantly impacted by portfolio asset class, geography, industry, and name concentration, as extreme fluctuations in capital supply and demand occur more often for institutions holding more concentrated portfolios. Finally, we discuss integrated investment and strategic decision measures that account for the full spectrum of economic risks and interactions with regulatory and accounting rules, as well as instruments' contribution to earnings volatility and capital surplus dynamics.

September 2016 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu, Dr. Jing Zhang, Andriy Protsyk
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