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Solvency In Sight - New Tools for Understanding the Impact of Investment Decisions on Capital

In this paper, we have considered the use of proxy models as a way of overcoming some of the operational and computational challenges associated with measuring future solvency under different market conditions and ALM assumptions.

October 2017 Pdf Dr. Steven Morrison

Toys R Us Exposure in CLOs

This report shows the CLO exposure to Toys R Us as of the latest available monthly surveillance report on September 8, 2017.

September 2017 Pdf Tess Likens

Combining Financial and Behavioral Information to Predict Defaults for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – A Dynamic Weighting Approach

One large challenge lenders currently face is how to combine different types of information into metrics that can support good business decisions. Currently, the banking industry uses two primary types of information — financial information and behavioral information — independently, to assess risk. Financial information includes Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow, and Financial Ratios. Behavioral information includes spending and payment patterns, among others. Both types of information provide unique insights, but, to date, they have not been combined to generate one comprehensive risk metric for commercial use.

September 2017 Pdf Alessio Balduini, Dr. Douglas Dwyer, Dr. Janet Zhao, Sara Gianfreda, Reeta Hemminki, Lucia Yang

Moody's Analytics RiskCalc Transfer Pricing Solution

Tax authorities monitor cross-border, inter-company loan and financing transactions to curb tax avoidance and require arm's length pricing for such transactions. At the core of arm's length pricing is the process of understanding the creditworthiness of a borrower and identifying a typical interest rate charged to borrowers with comparable credit ratings. The Moody's Analytics RiskCalc Transfer Pricing Excel Template provides a consistent, analytical solution to the arm's length transfer pricing process. This document explains the methodology behind this tool.

August 2017 Pdf Dr. Janet Zhao, Jeunghyun Kim

Impact of Using EDF9 on Credit Portfolio Analysis

This paper investigates the impact of using EDF9 instead of EDF8 values as inputs for estimating credit portfolio risk measures within Moodys Analytics RiskFrontier®. The recent EDF9 enhancements affect portfolio risk analysis via various channels — due not only to new values for default probabilities, but also because the market Sharpe ratio (i.e. market-level risk premium) and asset return-based correlations for corporate exposures depend on time series of EDF measures. In this paper, we focus on the question of how using the new EDF9 default probabilities alter patterns in portfolio risk measures.

June 2017 Pdf Noelle Hong, Jimmy Huang, Libor Pospisil, Albert Lee, Marc Mitrovic, Sunny Kanugo, Tiago Pinheiro, Andriy Protsyk, Dr. Yashan Wang

A Composite Capital Allocation Measure Integrating Regulatory and Economic Capital, and the Impact of IFRS 9 and CECL

We propose a composite capital allocation measure integrating regulatory and economic capital. The approach builds upon the economic framework underpinning traditional RORAC-style business decision rules, allowing for an optimized risk-return tradeoff while adhering to regulatory capital constraints. The measure has a number of depictions, and it can be viewed as a weighted sum of economic and regulatory capital, as economic capital adjusted for a regulatory capital charge, or as regulatory capital adjusted for concentration risk and diversification benefits. Intuitively, when represented as economic capital adjusted for a regulatory capital charge, the adjustment can be represented as the additional top-of-the-house regulatory capital, above economic capital, allocated by each instrument's required regulatory capital. We show that the measure has ideal properties for an integrated capital measure. When regulatory capital is binding, composite capital aggregates to the institution's top-of-the-house target capitalization rate. We find the measure is higher than economic capital, but lower than regulatory capital for instruments with high credit quality, reflecting the high regulatory capital charge for this instrument class. Finally, we address how IFRS 9/CECL impacts the CCM and discuss the broader implications of the new accounting standards.

May 2017 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu

CLO Rankings by Vintage (updated as of April 30, 2017)

In this report, Moody's Analytics has updated the prior deal rankings of the non-terminated 2006–2016 CLO's by vintage using a variety of scoring factors. CLO's that have had at least two payment periods are included.

May 2017 Pdf Peter Sallerson

May 2017 U.S. Middle Market Risk Report

Report highlights include: Private firm default rates have declined steadily during the past five years. At 1.5%, the rolling 12-month default rate is down 73% from its September 2009 peak of 5.3%. This trend has been driven primarily by a decline in the charge-off rate, now at its lowest level in the past ten years. Banks downgraded 16% of borrowers on their internal rating scales during the past year, compared to 14% in 2015. Among the ten states showcasing the largest change in EDF levels during the past ten years, Oklahoma and New Mexico experienced significant increases.

May 2017 Pdf Stephanie Yu, Irina Korablev, Stafford Perkins, Lin Moon

FRTB Marginal Back-Allocation

This paper develops a method to back-allocate to individual positions the market risk capital requirement that a bank must satisfy under the revised standardized approach proposed by the Basel Committee. Our method assesses the contribution of single positions or sub-portfolios to the overall capital charge. One important feature of our method is that it provides insight on which positions, sub-portfolios, and risk factors drive the capital charge and which help mitigate it. A negative contribution indicates that a marginal increase in the position would lead to a decrease in the capital charge, and vice versa.

April 2017 Pdf Lorenzo Boldrini, Tiago Pinheiro

A Primer on Model Efficiency Techniques for Valuation of Large Life Insurance Portfolios

This paper provides an introduction to various techniques for efficient calculation of the market-consistent value of a portfolio of insurance policies. Two standard approaches to portfolio valuation are considered: (1) Use of different scenarios through different policies; (2) Portfolio compression through the use of model points. Additionally, the use of proxy functions is introduced as a novel approach to valuation of individual policies.

April 2017 Pdf Dr. Steven Morrison

Estimating Commercial Real Estate (CRE) Stressed Loss Measures Under Federal Reserve 2017 Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (CCAR) Scenarios

For the 2017 CCAR program, the Federal Reserve published three macroeconomic and financial scenarios to be used in stress testing 34 CCAR financial institutions. In this study, we analyze 27 institutions, with a total of more than $760 billion in exposures to commercial real estate loans, using Moody's CMM Stress Testing framework. This report describes how we derive credit loss estimates for the CRE loan portfolios held by CCAR firms. This is our first study leveraging the loan-level commercial banks' data collected via Moody's Analytics CRE Credit Research Database (CRD™). Our analysis estimates that the expected nine-quarter, cumulative CRE portfolio loss through the first quarter of 2019 is 6.5% under the CCAR 2017 Severely Adverse Scenario. The primary factors behind the higher loss estimate compared to last year's stressed scenario (5.1% loss) is that this year's scenario features a slightly more severe economic downturn and a significantly larger decline in commercial real estate prices.

March 2017 Pdf Megha Watugala, Dr. Jun Chen, Wenjing Wang

What Do 20 Million C&I Loan Observations Say about New Origination Dynamics? — Insights from Moody's Analytics CRD Data

We construct and examine new origination of C&I loans to middle-market borrowers using the Loan Accounting System data extracted from Moody's Analytics Credit Research Database (CRD/LAS). We find that C&I loan origination declines during the Great Recession and recovers soon after. The magnitude of the decline and the speed of the recovery varies across segments. For example, new lending to the financial industry decreases more than to the non-financial industry during the recession and recovers faster afterwards. Another example, new originations during the recession consists predominantly of short-term loans, while long-term lending becomes more dominant post crisis. This finding suggests that banks are using loan tenor as a means to mitigate risk during crises, at times even more so than credit quality.

February 2017 Pdf Dr. Pierre Xu, Tomer Yahalom, May Jeng

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: Recovery Correlation Dynamics

The credit portfolio framework developed by Moody's Analytics accounts for links between default risk and recovery risk. We refer to these links as PD-LGD correlations.

February 2017 WebPage Noelle Hong, Yiting Xu

Measuring and Managing Credit Earnings Volatility of a Loan Portfolio Under IFRS 9

IFRS 9 materially changes how institutions set aside loss allowance. With allowances flowing into earnings, the new rules can have dramatic effects on earnings volatility. In this paper, we propose general methodologies to measure and manage credit earnings volatility of a loan portfolio under IFRS 9. We walk through IFRS 9 rules and the different mechanisms that it interacts with which flow into earnings dynamics. We demonstrate that earnings will be impacted significantly by credit migration under IFRS 9. In addition, the increased sensitivity to migration will be further compounded by the impact of correlation and concentration. We propose a modeling framework that measures portfolio credit earnings volatility and discuss several metrics that can be used to better manage earnings risk.

January 2017 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Yanping Pan, Dr. Yashan Wang, Dr. Pierre Xu, Dr. Jing Zhang, Xuan Liang

Modeling Structured Instruments in RiskFrontier™ Software

Utilizing Moody's Analytics tranche simulations and their accurate measures of tranche risk, we have developed methodologies to represent structured instruments in the RiskFrontier software.

December 2016 WebPage Ian Ward, Tomer Yahalom

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: Modeling Through-the-Cycle Correlations

Many financial institutions prefer to take longer-term views when assessing the risks of their credit portfolio. While forward-looking or Point-in-Time (PIT) parameters might be more reflective of the current economic environment, frequent updates may create fluctuations in risk measures.

October 2016 WebPage Jimmy Huang

Using Loan Accounting System Data to Model New Origination

Modeling new origination is important for forecasting the future dynamics of a portfolio, and it is becoming prevalent for banks to use these models for capital and risk management, stress testing, and strategic planning. The main challenge is finding data on new origination dynamics over time.

October 2016 WebPage Tomer Yahalom

The Degree Regulatory Capital is Constraining and Impact on Investment Decision Rules

Pierre Xu, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody's Analytics will discuss how required economic capital (EC) accounts for economic risks such as diversification and concentration effects.

October 2016 WebPage Dr. Pierre Xu

October 2016 U.S. Middle Market Risk Report

This semiannual report examines credit risk in the otherwise opaque U.S. private firm credit market. At 1.5%, the rolling 12-month default rate is down 73% from its September 2009 peak of 5.3%. This trend has been driven primarily by a decline in the charge-off rate, now at its lowest level in the past ten years. In addition, the rate of borrowers in non-accrual status has decreased 53% since September 2009. The number of borrowers rated “Substandard” has seen a steady increase since the first quarter of 2015, rising above pre-crisis levels, reflecting banks' cautious lending practices

October 2016 Pdf Irina Korablev, Stafford Perkins

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: The Degree Regulatory Capital is Constraining and Impact on Investment Decision Rules

Pierre Xu, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody's Analytics will discuss how required economic capital (EC) accounts for economic risks such as diversification and concentration effects.

October 2016 WebPage Dr. Pierre Xu

Proxy Methods for Run-off CTE Capital Projection: A Life Insurance Case Study

In this paper, we show a practical application to forecasting capital requirements for real portfolios of participating whole life and annuity business, carried out in a joint research project between Moody's Analytics and New York Life Insurance Company.

October 2016 Pdf Dr. Steven Morrison, Aubrey Clayton

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: Measuring Required Economic Capital and Parameterizing the Loss Reference Point

Mark Wells, Associate Director of Portfolio Research at Moody's Analytics, outlines how the parameterization of an Economic Capital model differs for accrual and securities portfolios and relates the parameterization approaches with those associated with Basel Advanced-IRB calculations.

October 2016 WebPage Mark Wells

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: Multi-Period Credit Risk and Capital Planning with Proxy Functions

Financial institutions are seeking ways to gain a better understanding of their credit portfolios' risk dynamics, allowing them to foresee and to prepare for potential increases in capital requirements resulting from economic shocks.

October 2016 WebPage Aubrey Clayton, Xuan Liang

Managing Earnings Volatility and Uncertainty in the Supply and Demand for Regulatory Capital: The Impact of IFRS 9

This paper presents a novel modeling approach that allows for better management of the interplay between supply and demand dynamics for regulatory capital, combining an economic framework with regulatory capital and new loss recognition rules. The framework is particularly relevant in understanding the extent to which IFRS 9 can lead to more aggressive provisioning, which feeds into earnings volatility. Our approach provides guidance on how organizations can better manage their capital buffer, considering investment concentration, its impact on earnings volatility, and the relationship with regulatory capital requirements. Imperative to portfolio management, the framework recognizes the likelihood of a capital shortfall being significantly impacted by portfolio asset class, geography, industry, and name concentration, as extreme fluctuations in capital supply and demand occur more often for institutions holding more concentrated portfolios. Finally, we discuss integrated investment and strategic decision measures that account for the full spectrum of economic risks and interactions with regulatory and accounting rules, as well as instruments' contribution to earnings volatility and capital surplus dynamics.

September 2016 Pdf Dr. Amnon Levy, Dr. Pierre Xu, Dr. Jing Zhang, Andriy Protsyk

CLO Rankings by Vintage (updated as of June 30, 2016)

In this report, Moody's Analytics has updated the prior deal rankings of the non-terminated 2005–2015 CLO's by vintage using a variety of scoring factors. 2015 US CLO's that have had at least twopayment periods are included.

August 2016 Pdf Peter Sallerson

Income-Adjusted Risk Contribution-based Capital Allocation

Banks commonly use Risk Contribution, or contribution to portfolio Unexpected Loss (i.e., standard deviation), as a risk allocation method. While the method has some very desirable properties, it can also produce seemingly counterintuitive dynamics, whereby high interest income-producing assets are associated with higher risk, all else being equal. This dynamic manifests from the higher interest income assets possessing higher value, leading to higher standard deviation in absolute terms. In reality, financial institutions often use interest income to offset losses, and thus, associate higher interest with lower risk. This paper introduces a new, income-adjusted form of Risk Contribution-based capital allocation, designed so that interest income offsets losses. The measure demonstrates improved properties for exposures with particularly high coupons.

August 2016 Pdf Andrew Kaplin, Dr. Amnon Levy, Mark Wells

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: The Degree to Which Regulatory Capital is Constraining and the Impact on Investment Decision Rules

Pierre Xu provides an overview to the Composite Capital Measure. He discusses how the measure should be parameterized to reflect the degree to which an institution is constrained by regulatory capital requirements and examine the dynamics and investment implications of the measure under different economic scenarios.

August 2016 WebPage Dr. Pierre Xu

Quantitative Research Webinar Series: Modeling Uncertainty in Regulatory Capital and the Impact of IFRS 9 and CECL

Amnon Levy, Managing Director of Portfolio Research at Moody's Analytics, discusses a novel modeling approach that allows organizations to better manage the supply and demand dynamics for regulatory capital. The approach marries an economic capital (EC) framework with (RegC) and loss accounting rules.

August 2016 WebPage Dr. Amnon Levy

Long-Range Economic Growth: Does Project Finance Matter?

The answer is a definitive “Yes,” suggesting increased project finance investment could become an important tool for addressing sluggish growth concerns brought about by the Great Recession. Empirical results, based on a comprehensive and unique project finance loan database not previously available, show that increasing project finance by one percentage point of GDP could increase real GDP growth per capita by 6 to 10 percent, with growth effects higher for upper-middle income and advanced economies. In other words, in these countries, if GDP per capita is growing at three percent annually, the boost provided by project finance could deliver cumulative, additional growth as high as two percent during the next five years. These results suggest that proposals for stimulating economic growth and productivity via increased project finance merit careful consideration. In contrast, in low-income countries, project finance appears to have less of an impact, possibly owing to deficiencies and weaknesses in financial systems and regulatory frameworks. By addressing these deficiencies, less developed countries could unleash increased growth and productivity.

July 2016 Pdf Dr. Jing Zhang, Kevin Kelhoffer, Jorge A. Chan-Lau

RiskCalc Banks v4.0 Model

There has been a significant increase in the demand for quantitative tools that assess the default risk of banks across different geographies. Pooling data from more than 90 countries, we see commonalities in linking default risk to a specific set of financial ratios. This finding suggests that a prescribed set of financial ratios, properly transformed, works well in estimating banks' default risk in a robust fashion. With this insight, we constructed the RiskCalc™ Banks v4.0 Model, intended for assessing the probability of default (PD) for banks across different geographies and regulatory environments. The model provides a unified framework to assess bank risk across different countries and regions, as well as different economic cycles. The one-year model is based upon a set of well-defined and ready-to-calculate financial ratios that effectively measure bank profitability, leverage, liquidity, growth, and asset quality. The five-year model combines these ratios with a measure derived from an economic capital framework based upon portfolio theory. Specifically, this measure captures the unexpected loss of a bank's loan portfolio relative to its loss-absorbing capital. Validation results show that the model delivers strong and robust power in rank ordering high risk banks from low risk banks, and that the results are robust across geographies and bank sizes.

July 2016 Pdf Dr. Douglas Dwyer, Dr. Janet Zhao, Yanruo Wang
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